Manchester United scored on the road for the eighth league game in a row as they picked up a big three points in the race for top four.
Rashford had scored two in two since returning from the World Cup but was benched by Erik ten Hag on Saturday for disciplinary reasons as United put in a blunt first-half performance.
The England international was introduced at the break and had a huge impact, firing home a 76th-minute winner with a powerful finish past Jose Sa, before he later had a second ruled out following a VAR check.
It could be a huge three points for United on the road as they leapfrog Tottenham into fourth, with Spurs due to play Aston Villa on Sunday.
The hosts received a huge let-off early on when an under-hit Nelson Semedo backpass put Alejandro Garnacho in on goal, only for Sa to bail out his right-back with a vital stop.
Diego Costa missed a big chance shortly after, doing the hard work to make space for a shot but sending a tame effort straight into the waiting hands of David de Gea.
Antony spurned an opportunity before the break when he saw a header saved after great work down the left by Garnacho and Tyrell Malacia.
Rashford, brought on at half-time, had the last laugh when his battling run ended with him smashing into the back of the net.
He had the ball in the back of the net in the 85th minute but the ball was adjudged to have come off his arm, and De Gea superbly kept out Raul Jimenez’s header in the closing seconds as United held on for all three points.
Man Utd player ratings (4-2-3-1)
GK: David de Gea – 7/10 – Played a big part in his team’s victory, making two excellent saves.
RB: Aaron Wan-Bissaka – 6/10 – Was solid at the back and had a few good moments at the other end, but his final ball could have been better.
CB: Raphael Varane – 7/10 – Led his backline well, not doing much wrong.
CB: Luke Shaw – 7/10 – Centre-back isn’t Shaw’s natural position but you wouldn’t be able to tell by his performances alone with the Englishman looking comfortable there.
LB: Tyrell Malacia – 7/10 – Played a part in the only goal of the match and was excellent defensively.
CM: Casemiro – 6/10 – Protected his backline well for the most part but wasn’t great in possession.
CM: Christian Eriksen – 5/10 – Made a few really good passes but wasn’t able to dictate things as much as he would have hoped or create many chances before being subbed off after an hour.
RW: Antony – 4/10 – Had a number of huge chances to open the scoring but failed to take them.
AM: Bruno Fernandes – 7/10 – Created a number of chances including his side’s opening goal with some lovely passes.
LW: Alejandro Garnacho – 4/10 – Missed a big chance and couldn’t do too much else in the 45 minutes that he played.
ST: Anthony Martial – 3/10 – Wasn’t able to cause Wolves any problems, having just one shot and not creating any big chances for his team-mates.
Marcus Rashford (45′ for Garnacho) – 8/10 – Made up for whatever he did to upset his manager prior to the game, coming off the bench to create chances, score the winner and so nearly a second.
Fred (61′ for Eriksen) – 6/10 – Added some much-needed steel to the United midfield.
Donny van de Beek (81′ for Martial) – N/A
Harry Maguire (90′ for Fernandes) – N/A
Anthony Elanga (90′ for Antony) – N/A